Originally Answered: Should women be added to the draft?
Addressing the equality aspect first, yes: equal is equal. Equal pay should come with equal responsibility, and women should be added to the selective service list and no preference or quota given to one gender or the other. Numbers should be drawn, and the person drawing them shouldn't ever know the gender of the person chosen.
However, in order for two-gender drafting to be equal, women must have equal access to all military MOSs. Currently, women cannot serve in combat arms MOSs, although this is a difference that exists almost entirely on paper. I served six years in the army myself, and did two tours in Iraq. I saw numerous women serving in combat roles in convoys and guard details. Some were turret gunners, some were grenadiers, some led entire convoys and commanded combat missions. I'm sure you've experienced the same thing. While women can't specifically sign up for combat arms jobs, they certainly are playing the role.
Still, women should have an opportunity to have any MOS if we're to be truly equal. How backward would it be if women could be drafted, but had to fill only support MOSs? That would automatically mean that most of the men drafted would be forced into the infantry or another combat arms job. So, equality across the board is needed: equal access to military jobs, and equal responsibilities under the draft.
As much as I'm in favor of a truly equal role for women in the military, I can understand the other side of the argument. Already, standards of fitness are different for women and men, and I strongly disagree with this. A job in the military is the same job regardless of what gender is performing it, and things in the real world don't get lighter or less strenuous just because a soldier happens to be female. I've met some amazing female soldiers that could mop the floor with me in a PT competition, but that's the exception and not the rule.
Of course, this presents a problem. Let's say that the military decides on a unified standard of physical fitness, probably somewhere between the current male and female standards. One, we automatically weaken the combat effectiveness of the military by lowering the standard, unless the current male standard becomes the new requirement for both genders. Two, what then happens to the average female who gets drafted? There will inevitably be many females who simply cannot meet the higher standard of physical fitness. Do we then let them out of their obligation? Or do we send them to fight anyway, and risk the lives of other soldiers by sending inadequately fit soldiers to fight by their side?
In all, I am NOT a fan of the draft in any case, but my position is different than the "people shouldn't HAVE to go to war" folks. Personally, I think a draft is disgraceful. As an all-volunteer military, having unwilling citizens forced among our ranks strips much of the honor and prestige of making a conscious decision to serve the United States. Secondly, it takes two or three dedicated, competent NCOs to ensure one unwilling sorry soldier is where they need to be and doing what they need to do. I'm sure you've already experienced your share of soldiers that need constant hand-holding and spoon-feeding. Third, I'm of the opinion that if the United States ever comes into peril, and there are not enough men and women to answer the call, then our country should be forfeit. Put differently, if our citizens will not voluntarily defend the United States, we do not deserve her.